Native plant landscaping design tips

There are three major design considerations when working with native plants.

 

1. Designing for human function and aesthetics

The wildlife won’t care whether your garden looks like a page out of House Beautiful or more like a jungle, but the neighbors to whom you are trying to “sell” the native plant concept might.This is particularly important in an institutional setting such as a business, faith community or community association.

2. Designing to support the ecosystem

This need not be in conflict with #1 or #3.

 

3. Designing for low maintenance.

Not everyone is interested in weeding a garden.

Human function and aesthetics

Conventional garden design principles apply equally to native plant design.

 

Basic preliminaries

  • Hardscape before softscape

  • Proximity to a faucet for watering

  • Overhead and underground lines and other facilities

 

Where do you need shade?

  • Seating areas

  • South and west side of buildings to reduce air conditioning costs

 

How will you use the space?

  • Walking

  • Playing

  • Sitting

  • Meeting or entertainment areas

  • Privacy screening

  • Sight lines for security

 

Odd numbers

When making a grouping, odd numbers of plants look better in most situations.

Rhythm and repetition

The human brain gets confused by total randomness. It is helpful to provide some sense of order by repeating a color or shape throughout the garden.

 

Lead the eye

The human eye will rove around forlornly until it finds somewhere to rest. You can control that by using lines to give a sense of movement and by providing a focal point, which can be a human-made object such as a bench or statue, or a particularly noticeable plant.

Avoiding monotony

Many summer-blooming perennials for sun have similar foliage and will grow almost in lockstep to approximately the same height.  This can be boring when they are not in bloom. They say that a good way to plan a garden is to design it for the foliage, not just for the flowers. There are several approaches.

  1. Intersperse plants with strikingly different foliage or heights. Some examples:

    • Much taller plants

      • Turk’s Cap Lily (Lilium superbum)

      • Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium perfoliatum)

      • Black Cohosh (Actea racemosa)

    • Different foliage shape or texture

      • Perennials

        • Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)

        • Gayfeather (Liatris spicata)

        • Iris versicolor, virginica, cristata

        • Virginia Spiderwort (Tradescantia virginicus)

        • Spikenard (Aralia racemosa)

        • Threadleaf Coreopsis (Coreopsis verticillata)

        • Wild Blue Indigo (Baptisia australis)

        • Maidenhead Fern (Adiantum pedatum)

      • Trees and shrubs

        • Sasssafras (Sassafras albidum)

        • Paw Paw (Asimina trilobum)

        • Sumac (Rhus species)

        • Shrubby Saint John’s Wort (Hypericum prolificum)

        • False Indigo (Amorpha fruticosa)

  2. Include ferns, vines, clumps of grasses and shrubs. 

    • A flower garden need not consist of perennials alone. Adding other plants can also give you more winter interest.

  3. Edit existing plants to create the effect of variety

    • If you find yourself with an expanse of plants that all look alike, cut back some of them to achieve variety of height. For example, you could cut back by half the summer-blooming plants in the front half of the border in the late spring (this will also result in those plants blooming later than the ones behind. See the list below for some example of plants that can be treated this way), or you could create clumps by cutting the surrounding plants down to the ground.

  4. Add colorful pots or other human objects.

Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)

Paw Paw (Asimina triloba)

Spikenard (Aralia racemosa)

Add mystery

Obscuring part of the view makes the space seem larger.

 

Accent the entrance

Using plants to create an entranceway allows for a graceful transition between street and building.

 

Cues to care

Random assortments of plants tend to look weedy, but an otherwise unintelligible planting can be made recognizable as an intentional design by adding “cues to care” such as

  • Frames - can be made of plants, a strip of mowed lawn, or fences or walls.

  • Human-made objects - benches, pieces of art

  • Signs such as wildlife habitat certification signs or interpretive signs

 

Scale

Tiny plants next to a huge building, or vice versa, will look out of balance.

 

Visibility

Consider the vantage point of the viewer. If the garden will mostly be seen from a distance, large plants with bold foliage will stand out better, as will yellow, orange and pink. Blue and purple recede. Red also tends to recede, surprisingly. To appreciate small plants, it helps to put them near where you walk. Spring ephemerals in particular will be enjoyed most if they are along your usual walkway so they can be seen even in bad weather, or outside a window. Can you arrange the plantings in a way to create the effect of a garden room when viewed from a window where people sit? This is likely to be more enjoyable than a distant vista.

 

Four season interest

The color of fall foliage is well worth considering, as is the structure and texture of trunks and stems.  Grasses and the stalks of many perennials are much more interesting to look at than bare mulch beds - how much editing is needed is a matter of taste. Nothing beats the sight of red berries against the snow, of course.

 

Double borders

Having planting areas on both sides of a path, especially when the same plant appears to cross the path in a drift, can add a lot of charm.

 

Naturalized areas

Gardens and conventional landscapes are not the only choices, nor necessarily the best. Do you have room for a naturalized area? The key processes here are restoring the plants that would have grown in your neighborhood before it was built up, and getting rid of non-native plants. Most common garden weeds, for example, are non-native.

 

Get help

Consider hiring a native plant landscape designer, if not to install, at least to create the design. https://www.plantnovanatives.org/landscaping-help

Winterberry (Ilex verticillata)

Creeping Phlox (Phlox subulata)

Supporting the ecosystem

Extended bloom time
Bees need to eat all year, so include a variety of plants for flower from early spring to late fall

Multi-layer plantings
WIldlife depend on plants that fill the spaces between the tops of canopy trees and the ground. Different bird species, for instance, nest at different levels.

Ground layer, not “ground cover”
Caterpillars and numerous other wildlife depend on the leaf litter and low growing plants.

Feed the birds
Adult birds need the seeds and berries of native plants, which are timed and have the nutritional content they need, as well as insects. Baby birds eat only insects, primarily caterpillars, and caterpillars feed primarily on native trees. 

Feed the specialist insects
Most plant eating insects (including butterflies and many bees) can only eat the particular plants with which they evolved. If you plant food for the specialists, you will also be supporting the generalists. Provide lots of diversity. This, however, does not mean plant just one of everything, since a single plant may not be enough to support those particular insects.

Plant groves of trees
Trees are not meant to be alone. Plant several with 10 foot spacing. This may seem close together, but if you look in the woods, this is how trees grow.

Use straight species and local ecotypes
Whenever they are available, straight species (as opposed to cultivars) will provide more genetic diversity and in some cases may provide more wildlife value. Plants that have been selected for purple or red leaves, for instance, are less edible to insects, and flowers that have been altered in shape or color may not work for the pollinators. Also if possible, using local ecotypes is ideal, as there are significant differences a plant that evolved in Florida, for instance, and one that evolved in Florida. 

Plant in groups
Bees forage most efficiently if they can go from plant to nearby plant. Caterpillars may need several plants to provide enough leaves, and butterflies may have trouble finding plants that are scattered around. 

Provide a water source
Animals need to drink, of course, and amphibians and dragonflies need water for breeding.

Leave some bare soil
Some solitary native bees dig tunnels in bare soil to lay their eggs.

Leave the leaves
Dead leaves are the food and shelter for innumerable beings. They look fine in a garden bed over the winter, and in the spring the plants will grow right up through them. 

Leave the stalks
Pithy or hollow dead stalks are where some native bees lay their eggs. Try to leave them up over the winter. Cut them back to 18 inches in early spring. Over the next few months, bees will find them and lay their eggs.Meanwhile the new growth has come up and hidden them. The following spring, the new bees will emerge. By then, the stalks are usually fallen over on the ground. You can leave them there to decompose, or carefully move them somewhere else out of the way to make sure the bees have time to emerge.

Leave dead trees
Decaying trees are the homes and food for woodpeckers and many other critters. If the tree is still upright, you can cut it to about 20 feet and leave the snag standing. Fallen logs and stumps can be used as natural art.

Can you recreate what was here before?
You are likely to provide the most ecological benefit if you allow some of your property to reforest, by providing the plants that should occupy all the layers (canopy, understory trees, shrubs, ground layer, dead leaves). Which brings us to the last point.

Can you leave room somewhere on your property for wildness?

How about letting the native plants take over and just removing the non-natives?

Protect your plants from the deer
Most of our woods are missing most of the plants that constitute a healthy ecosystem, because the deer leave little behind except the full grown trees (the tender seedlings that should be there to eventually replace them get eaten) and the invasive introduced plants that deer don’t like. It is wonderful what can regenerate if the deer stop can no longer inflict this damage.

Nature Conservancy headquarters

Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock)

Nest site of Abrupt Digger Bees

Low maintenance

Using native plants need not entail any more work than a conventional landscape - and might even require less. Here are some ways to minimize it.

 

Swap out non-natives for natives (starting with invasive non-natives)

You can keep the exact same design that you have already, if you choose. Many native plants work well in conventional setting. Consult this list for suggestions.

 

Shade is easier

Weeds grow much slower in the shade, and assertive native plants don’t spread as fast. Shade gardens can be just as beautiful and a lot cooler than those in the sun, so make more shade by planting trees.

 

Forget the flowers

Using perennials will mean weeding. Shrubs and trees are super easy and have great environmental value. Choose shrubs that will grow only to the height you want so you don’t have to do any pruning. 

Clumps of ornamental grasses are easy for landscape crews to deal with.

Thick stands of ferns in the shade are tall enough to suppress weeds well and create a cooling, calming atmosphere. 

 

If you want flowers…

Plant a very limited number of species and group plants of the same species together to simplify weed identification.

Choose species that will not self-seed and that do not spread rapidly by runners. Check for these characteristics in the plant finder app.

 

Choose easy plants

Consult this list of species that are favored by professionals.

 

Keep it manageable

Work with small areas at any given time and add gradually over the years. New plantings require more attention and watering. It is easier if you can set up a hose to one area and not have to move it around.

Virginia Sweetspire (Itea virginica)

Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa)

How much time should you expect to spend on maintenance? This chart may help.

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